The ultimate goal of regenerative medicine is to overcome the failure of an organ, restoring its function and homeostasis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types and represent one of the most well-investigated cell types for tissue regeneration. To explain tissue regeneration after the injection of MSCs in any injured organ, it was first hypothesized that MSCs would differentiate into the desired cell type to induce tissue regeneration. However, it was discovered a poor cell retention and survival in the injury site [1,2] resulting in unsatisafactory engraftment rates. With these considerations, the second mechanism proposed is related to the cell paracrine effect mediated, amongst others, by extracellular vesicles (exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies) [3,4]. Extracellular vesicles are active players participating in homeostasis and disease which act as biological effectors in many physiological processes such as immune response, pregnancy, coagulation and cancer.
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